Esperanto Primer (v2.0)

Esperanto Language

The most useful site I have found to learn Esperanto is Lernu.net. This is what I have been able to glean so far:

There are not exceptions to any grammar rules at all. Each letter is pronounced the same each time with no exceptions – very phonetic pronunciation.

Alphabet

The alphabet is sounded out just like English with a few new letters that, physiotherapist for me seem very Czech in nature (pronunciation is guidance is listed in brackets [ ]) :

a b c [ts] ĉ (ch) d e f g ĝ [j] h ĥ [ch] i j [y] ĵ [zh] k l m n o p r [rr] s ŝ [sh] t u ŭ [w] v z

Nouns

Base Nouns end in ‘o’: libro – book

Sentence Objects end in n: libron – book

Make a noun plural by adding ‘j’ to the end: libroj – books

Adding ‘et’ at the end of a noun creates something smaller: libreto – booklet

Possession: ‘de’

Pronouns

Pronouns end in ‘i’:

Mi – I

Vi – You

Li – He

xSi – She

xGi – It

Ni – We

Ili – They

oni – indefinite pronoun

Verbs

Base verbs end in ‘i’: doni – ‘to give’

Present tense verbs end in: ‘as’: donas – give

Past tense verbs end in: ‘is’: donis – gave

Future tense verbs end in: ‘os’: donos – will give

Conditional tense verbs end in: ‘us’: donus – would give

Command tense verbs end in: ‘u’: donu – Give! (implied subject you)

Estas – Am/is/are (present)

Estis – Was/Were (past)

Estos – ‘will be’ (future)

Adverbs

Adverbs are verbs that end in ‘e’: done – ?generously?

Adjectives

Base Adjectives end with ‘a’: bela – beautiful

Adding ‘mal’ to the beginning creates the negative: malbela – ugly

When describing the sentence object add an ‘n’ to the end: malbelan

Add ‘pli’ to magnify description one level: pli very beautiful

Add ‘plej’ to magnify description more : plej most beautiful

Comparison:‘ol’: this is bigger ‘than’ that

Articles and Other

La – the (no associated gender)

Accent – on second to last vowel
OK, more about
so I have revised and corrected my previous Esperanto Primer (v1.0) and here is the new one An Esperanto Primer (v2.0).

Let me know if there are any corrections or suggestions.

James O'Neill
www.ArionsHome.com/about
http://www.ArionsHome.com

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