Chapter 2 – Esperanto Basics (Part II)

This is very much a work in progress. I am unfortunately spending more time researching and writing this than I am learning the language.

  1. Nouns (Section I)

    1. Pronouns (Lesson 1)

      Pronouns end in ‘i’, as do base verbs, but these can be distinguished from verbs due to their shortness:

      • mi – I
      • vi – you
      • li – he
      • si – she
      • gi – it
      • ni – we
      • ili – they
      • oni – indefinite pronoun – no gender, personhood, or numbers assumed (as all above pronouns)
    2. Gender Specificity in Nouns (Lesson 2)

      There are a group of nouns that have an explicit/implicit gender association such as father or daughter which, of course, would be male and female respectively. All Esperanto base nouns that assume a gender, as such, are either neuter or male (depending on context) in their base form. Patro = father or parent (depending on context). To make these nouns to explcitly be in their female form you add the ‘in’ suffix.

      • boy/girl : knabo/knabino
      • brother/sister: frato/fratino
      • father/mother: patro/patrino
      • grandfather: avo/avino
      • husband/wife: edzo/edzino
      • man/woman viro/virino
      • sir/madame/Mr/Mrs (married/formal?):  sinjoro/sinjorino
      • Mr/Miss (unmarried/familiar?) – fraulo/fraulino
      • son/daughter: filo/filino
      • uncle/aunt: onklo/onklino

      If you wish to explcitly remove gender association use ‘ge’ before a base noun to remove gender (ge patro = parent). If you want to specifically make the word male you can add the ‘vir’ prefix (virpatro = father), although this form is not commonly used. (see Wiktionary List of male gendered nouns)

  2. Verbs (Section II)

    1. Verbs from the Previous Chapter

      • to eat – mangi
      • to give – doni
      • to go (to) – veturi
      • to like – sati
      • to love – ami
      • to pick up (an object) – kolekti
      • to play (with something) – ludi
      • to see – vidi
      • to walk – marsi
      • to want – voli
    2. Adding Infinitive Verbs

      Verbs in there base form are called ‘infinitive verbs’ which can be combined with verbs in other tenses for use; an example of such would be the following English sentence ‘I want to walk home.’, in Esperanto it would be ‘Mi volas marsi hejmo.

    3. New Verbs

      • to bake – baki
      • to decide – decidi
      • to have – havi
      • to hurry – rapidi
      • to learn – lerni
      • to love – ami
      • to teach – instrui
      • to understand – kompreni
      • to work – labori
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