Archive for the Category » Language «

Esperanto Primer (v2.0)

The most useful site I have found to learn Esperanto is Lernu.net. This is what I have been able to glean so far:

There are not exceptions to any grammar rules at all. Each letter is pronounced the same each time with no exceptions – very phonetic pronunciation.

Alphabet

The alphabet is sounded out just like English with a few new letters that, physiotherapist for me seem very Czech in nature (pronunciation is guidance is listed in brackets [ ]) :

a b c [ts] ĉ (ch) d e f g ĝ [j] h ĥ [ch] i j [y] ĵ [zh] k l m n o p r [rr] s ŝ [sh] t u ŭ [w] v z

Nouns

Base Nouns end in ‘o’: libro – book

Sentence Objects end in n: libron – book

Make a noun plural by adding ‘j’ to the end: libroj – books

Adding ‘et’ at the end of a noun creates something smaller: libreto – booklet

Possession: ‘de’

Pronouns

Pronouns end in ‘i’:

Mi – I

Vi – You

Li – He

xSi – She

xGi – It

Ni – We

Ili – They

oni – indefinite pronoun

Verbs

Base verbs end in ‘i’: doni – ‘to give’

Present tense verbs end in: ‘as’: donas – give

Past tense verbs end in: ‘is’: donis – gave

Future tense verbs end in: ‘os’: donos – will give

Conditional tense verbs end in: ‘us’: donus – would give

Command tense verbs end in: ‘u’: donu – Give! (implied subject you)

Estas – Am/is/are (present)

Estis – Was/Were (past)

Estos – ‘will be’ (future)

Adverbs

Adverbs are verbs that end in ‘e’: done – ?generously?

Adjectives

Base Adjectives end with ‘a’: bela – beautiful

Adding ‘mal’ to the beginning creates the negative: malbela – ugly

When describing the sentence object add an ‘n’ to the end: malbelan

Add ‘pli’ to magnify description one level: pli very beautiful

Add ‘plej’ to magnify description more : plej most beautiful

Comparison:‘ol’: this is bigger ‘than’ that

Articles and Other

La – the (no associated gender)

Accent – on second to last vowel
OK, more about
so I have revised and corrected my previous Esperanto Primer (v1.0) and here is the new one An Esperanto Primer (v2.0).

Let me know if there are any corrections or suggestions.

NYT Article – “Does Language Shape the Way You Think?”

So, order I am currently reading about constitutional law which is a fascinating topic, and this has prompted me to write this post.  This is actually something I have thought of a long time ago before I started to read about this topic, but I thought I would now put ‘pen to paper’ so to speak. I do not have a problem with post facto repeals of law as a principle, but I my problem is that there are so many of them and sometimes it make take years for them to come to light resulting in damage to people and their rights to which laws and our legislators are entrusted to protect.

I have a problem with laws that are passed and eventually are found unconstitutional or have other problems, and are subsequently repealed with those, whose rights have been violated, have exactly no recourse or reparations for their violated rights and/or destroyed lives, beyond the repealing of the offending law. I think that this is a grave injustice to the American peoples.

The fact that there is no recourse for the American people, or punishment per se for those that enacted such negligent laws, allows the perpetuation of such practices. There is a no real punishment or deterrent to our lawmakers for doing as such. They have the potential of not getting elected again or being impeached, right, but that potential is so small and not enough of a deterrent especially when they cater to a majority in trampling the rights of the minority, as we can obviously see. There is no real deterrent to not pass these unconstitutional laws. By the time that it comes around for the government to deal with the law they may not even be in office and besides, someone else will be fighting both sides of the fight – not the legislators. State and Federal government is one thing, and I understand that local governments are in some ways a different story, but still there is something that can be done about that too.

Post Facto Repeals

I realize that our founding fathers, in light of the common governmental philosophies and examples of the time, think that having the judicial branch  as a post facto (after the fact) method of solving these deficiencies is enough, but the post facto nature means that damage is already done to those people’s rights who have been violated. The communities then were smaller and word traveled quickly about such things, and revolution and standing up for your rights was the thing to do then, but now a days  our communities are huge, spread apart, and disconnected. The United States is huge and the common people are far removed from the law creation process and our legislators. We live in a very different world than our founding fathers could have ever imagined.

One of the very foundational principles of  our government is that government is there to ensure the protection of our Life, Liberty, and Property (LLP). I see that the passing of these unconstitutional laws and their subsequent need to be repealed as gross negligence on the part of our governmental leaders and the their passing of these laws is a violation of their oaths and a violation of our rights to LLP. I understand that there are going to be some laws that are going to make it through and need to be dealt with but, there should not as many as there are. There are some laws that take decades for someone to say something about and finally do something about it. There is a lot of social pressure to not rock to boat. If you take a look at the animus and violence surrounding the gay rights movement, the school prayer ten commandments issues then you will know what I mean. People are afraid to stand up for their rights due to potential  adverse social reactions regardless of how right they are. This fact allows for the perpetuation of violations to our rights out of fear and that is an unAmerican result.

When these unconstitutional laws are passed and several years go by and damage is done to the US citizens. This is wrong and a violation of our government’s job of protecting our rights and not being apart of the violation process.

Pre Facto

Now, I cannot imagine that our lawmakers do not have some sort of judicial opinions being thrown at them as they are legislating new laws, but with as many laws as there are that need to be repealed I find it hard to see that there is. Perhaps it might be because I am more active in thinking and reading about civil rights stuff that I may be more sensitive to it, but still there are these laws that are getting passed and they are hurting people who have no recourse or reparations besides the agonizing process of pursuing a repeal.

There needs to be more pre facto work done on these laws so that they either never get passed or that the made constitutional. I understand that many of these laws get passed in the heat of the moment and under great socio-cultural pressure where legislators are more concerned about keeping their jobs than doing things right, or may be caught up in the emotion of the “national” moment, but they still have an obligation to protect our rights and to not be  part of violating them.

What can be done?

I understand that our government officials can not be held directly liable else they will be not allowed to do their job, but we need some way to hold them accountable for their actions or install a deterrent for them to be party to passing such laws, but here are some of my thoughts and I know for obvious reasons that most of these will not work, but here is what came to mind:

  • 3 strikes rule –  government officials who pass 3 laws that need to be repeal loose there jobs.
  • fines – government officials who pass laws that need to be repealed are fined
  • reparations – those people whose rights are violated are compensated and the violations are corrected. Sort of a class action lawsuit against the government
  • amicus briefs – allowing for the filing of amicus briefs from all interested parties so that legislators can have more informed opinions from those outside the legislative process and the potential legal consequences
  • open content – posting laws to a public website for comment
  • subpoenaing legislators – requiring legislators who passed the bill to testify in the repealing process

I ran into this article titled “Does Language Shape the Way You Think?” that talks about how the vocabulary of your native tongue can affect how you conceptualize and relate to the world around you. I have heard of this before in reading about linguistics, ampoule but since I found an article on it I thought I would post it for everyone. It is fascinating stuff.

Google Celebrates Dr. Zamenhof’s Birthday with a Logo Doodle!

Google is, viagra 60mg thankfully, more info celebrating Dr. L.L. Zamenhof’s birthday today with a Doodle, cheapest since it is Zamenhof Day. Right about now you are probably wondering who this Dr. Zamenhof is that Google would take the time to recognize him? There was a lot of speculation within the Esperanto community as to whether or not Google would do recognize him or not, but it looks like Google heard our call and the importance of Esperanto to the world

Google's Zamenhoff Day Doodle

Dr. Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof

Dr. Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof

In case you do not know who Dr. Zamenhof is, he was a Polish Jew born in Byaliastock Poland during Russia’s occupation. He, throughout a decade or so, created the constructed language Esperanto to be the worlds primary secondary-language to facilitate communication between the disparate languages. I write at length about Esperanto and his wonderful and easy to learn language in my Esperanto pages here at Arion’s Home..

What does a green flag have to do with Zamenhof or Esperanto, well a green flag with a white star, or a green star are the symbols of the Esperanto movement.

More Coverage on National Geographic News and CBS News via the Associated Press.

New Examiner Article – “My Faith (part V) – The Influence of Micronationalism and Esperanto”

I have posted a new article for the Milwaukee Examiner titled “My faith (part V) – The Influence of Micronationalism and Esperanto.

Micronationalism and Esperanto are both apart of the civil activism facet of my faith. Micronationalism reinforced my political needs as well as fostering thoughts of globalization. Esperanto had a similar effect as well providing a mechanism for bringing the world together and breaking down borders.

Micronationalism

In seeing flaws in our current system of government, troche especially in light of our gay rights (as well as other civil rights) failings at the hands of conservative religion, I wanted to see if I can be a part of making changes and practice politics myself. Years ago while I was working in a call center I remember a web article the mentioning of something called a micronation.

I started to research micronations and in the end I choose the Republic of Talossa to be my safe vehicle of political practice. I found most micronations were very small and unestablished, and either a monarchy or had a state assumed/sponsored religion, neither of which were at all appealing to me or my sense of justice and equality. The Republic of Talossa had none of these failings and even has its own constructed language to boot. The Republic  was a thoroughly enjoyable and enlightening experience with a lot of great people there. I learned a lot about the political process and debating from my experience with them.

In working and thinking in micronational terms I also considered things that we could institute micronationally, or even within the United States (or globally), that would make our lives so much simpler if they were applied. Possibilities such as the International Fixed Calenderthe 24 hour clockdecimal time, and the metric system were things I thought about and proposed. With all of this, what was important to me is making our lives and or world a better place; not just for us Americans, but on a global scale.

Esperanto

The WSA brought me to Esperanto, since their Passport and other documents are also in Esperanto. I had never heard of the language before that point, but in having researched it quite a bit, its goals are very compatible with my faith and desires in wanting to bring down borders and set people free.  I have even written extensively about Esperanto on my BLog. Esperanto is comparatively a simple language to learn and it is a wonderful thing to help bring the world together and to easily break-down the language barrier. It is a constructed language made to be easy to learn and speak, lacking almost all of the failings of natural languages. It can be learned in a few hard months of dedicated learning.

The Baha’i Faith has taken Esperanto up in earnest to help to spread its word, and there is a growing community within the Unitarian Universalists to work with it as well. The Roman Catholic Church publishes and speaks in Esperanto and has for quite a while.

Wanting to Teach the Kids…

So, abortion the following week shall be fun. My sister’s kids will be here at my parents house until Thursday, I think, and they are a 15,16 and 7’ish. There will be a lot of racquetball and eating going on. The last time they came I played so hard that my back and neck were out of wack for a week. I have to play really hard to have a chance to beat that athletic punk. We will also be celebrating Easter this Sunday and my mother’s birthday on Monday. I have a lot to look forward to over this next week. =) I just hope that I have the energy to survive

Now something that does come to mind to this not-so-interesting uncle, is I really want to expose them to the different books that have really changed the way that I see the world. Books such as “Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus”, “Rich Dad, Poor Dad”, “Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters”, “The Jeffereson Bible”, “Introduction to Linguistics” and things of that nature, but I myself thinking that I would be overstepping my bounds as an uncle. I do not think that my sister would mind at all, but still, the hesitation is there. I know that I will have this luxury when our daughter is born.

I know their minds are young and they still lack perspective, but perhaps reading these will plant the seeds of a greater understanding and appreciation in the world for things that most would not have. I also want to introduce them to Esperanto, plus topics such as globalization and comparative religion, but that makes me not-so-interesting to spend time with. =( They are still kids and are more interested in having fun, which is what they come here for.

I remember when I was alone with Sammy at a water park and I was talking about such not-so-interesting topics and I felt sorry for her. She was a trooper and stood through it all hoping that the line would go faster so the end would come really soon. Good kids they are. =) I wish I could just open my brain and poor some of my perspective and experience into their little heads to give them that extra headstart in understanding this crazy and sometimes dangerous place we live in. 

In some ways I feel sorry for our daughter for the things we will subject her too like all of the things I mentioned above plus Russian, Yoga, and Martial Arts. =) 

I think I have rambled enough for now. I know I do not normally post about such personal stuff, but I felt compelled to do so today. =)

“China Takes Aim at US Dollar”

There is an article in the Wall Street Journal titled “China Takes Aim at US Dollar” which says:

China called for the creation of a new currency to eventually replace the dollar as the world’s standard, thumb proposing a sweeping overhaul of global finance that reflects developing nations’ growing unhappiness with the U.S. role in the world economy.

The unusual proposal, advice made by central bank governor Zhou Xiaochuan in an essay released Monday in Beijing, is part of China’s increasingly assertive approach to shaping the global response to the financial crisis.

Wall Street Journal

Now, I am very pro-globalization and I will say that the author seems to a be significantly uninformed about Esperanto, but ultimately something like this really needs to happen. It will really help to stabilize economies as well as breakdown the barriers between our nations and cultures. The Esperanto metaphor is rather appropriate, and at the same time Esperanto needs to be adopted as well for such similar reasons.

I think it is a great idea. The creation and use of the Euro shows that it can be done and it does work, but of course getting it started is reeeeeaaaallllly expensive, takes time, and will take countries giving up their pride and doing what’s best for the future of  their countries and the world. There is also those who support the idea of the Amero which would be the North American equivalent of the Euro used by Canada, the United States, and Mexico.

It will be in the US’ best interests to spearhead this as well as the adoption of Esperanto, because as you can see the cause for a change is here, not only in the reduction of use and teaching of English, but also in the worlds desire to not have their economies be dependent on the strength or weakness of the US economy. The world is slowly shifting away from American dependence and it is in our best interests to have a say in where it shifts to. Preferably not to another country’s court, but in a neutral non-national court that can help bring us closer together. 

Times are a changing and so do we – Esperanto and a World Currency… Hoooo Aahhhh!!!

Esperanto, The EU, and the Nobel Peace Prize

European Union

Ljudmila Novak, cardiology who I assume is a Polish a Slovenian delegate to the European Union Parliament, rx is suggesting that Esperanto be the common language for the European Union. Yea!

Since it was mentioned below I will go ahead and add this to the post. I have seen this around, eczema but I have not posted it yet, since I had a good idea what it was about. The Prague Manifesto, which was drafted in 1996 at a World Congress of Esperato, gives a wonderful rationale for the use of Esperanto as the IAL

Nobel Prize

I did not report on this before since there were only a few places that mentioned it, but I will mention this now: Esperanto was nominated for a 2008 Nobel Peace Prize.

Two of Esperanto’s Exceptions and Why They Are There??

So, try in thinking about Esperanto and some of those people who love Esperanto such as myself, but yet still find some issues with the language. Esperanto is a wonderful tool. It is not perfect, by any means, but is great at what is does – act as a simple to learn and use International Auxiliary Language.

There are two anomalies that exist in Esperanto that I find interest in their existence. Esperanto planned the language. It did not come into existence through serendipity or happenstance. He specifically planned the language in a certain way. The two issues I am going to talk about are gender specificity, and the letters j and ŭ.

Gender Specificity in Esperanto

The Specificity Problem

 

I have been thinking about this for while, and have even resolved myself to learn the standard way and then learn the way that is more internally consistent with the language (by adding a male and female suffix and have the root be gender neutral, but definitely pointing to the a male base), but this seeming exception to the language’s definite design kept bothering me.

I kept thinking about what little I know of the Spanish, French, and Russian languages all of which have gender assignments for all nouns. Some of which are seemingly arbitrary to my American Male perspective, and completely counter to what is intuitive.

  • In Russian car, “maschina” (Englicized from Russian), is female and one would expect it to be male.
  • I will have to find more examples

These sorts of exceptions are rife throughout all languages that implement this construct, and it is one of the things that makes these languages difficult to learn and an exercise in memorizing exceptions.

Gender Specificity as Gateway Construct

Now, I was thinking that Esperanto’s gender specificity cannot be so out of place and that there has to be a very definite reason for it. Perhaps its existence which seems counter to its ease of use and internal consistency, and perhaps, it is not meant to cater to ease of use. Perhaps its primary existence is to facilitate Esperanto’s requirement to be a Gateway Language

As I have earlier pointed out other languages have gender assignment to nouns (perhaps even to other words too), and they have rules that deal with changing the word depending on its gender and current use. My thinking is that gender specificity in Esperanto is act as a gateway to this use in national languages. It is there to prepare a person for learning other languages that implement gender specificity, first, and then it maintains Esperanto’s internal consistency.

So, yes it does seem out of place and there is a better and more internally consistent way to implement gender specificity in Esperanto as most will agree, but to do so would be to remove a tool that acts as an important gateway to other languages.

Letters of Exception as a Gateway

A similar line of reasoning will follow here as well for the the letters j and ŭ, both of which sully Esperanto’s ability to call itself a completely phonetic and exception free language. Languages all across the world have letters that when used together form different sounds. I think it is said that Icelandic is the only truly phonetic alphabet used in the world.

Now, these two letters maintain a sort of consistency in their pronunciation when used. The letter j when used following specific vowels always the same sound, and ŭ has a similar use. Now, I currently believe that these exist for the specific use as a gateway to all other non-phonetic languages and to prepare the person for constructs that they might not otherwise have been exposed to in their native languages.

In Closing

I hope that some of what I have written makes sense to you and may shed some light on to why these exceptions may exist in the language. Please post and questions, comments, and suggestions.

Esperanto on Change.org did not make the Final Top 10 =(

In the second round of voting on Introduce Esperanto as a Foreign Language Subject in Schools received about 3600 votes and over 19 pages of comments. Esperanto did not make it into the top 10 that will be championed by Change.org’s people, heart but we did make in the top 25 ideas of honorable mentions. We had a great run. =)

Esperanto: Round 2 on Change.org

Ok, clinic so on ‘Teaching Esperanto in our Schools’ on Change.org made it through to round 2 not by much. We need everyone to go out and cast your vote again, as well as spread the word to everyone that you already have done so, so that they can vote again. 

Go! Go! Go!

Happy Esperanto Day!

On todays BLog roundup I have noticed that today is a very special holiday!

Saluton! Hodiau estas Zamenhof tago!” (Hello! Today is Zamenhof Day!).

I have been writing and collecting a bit about Esperanto here.

Promote Esperanto on Change.org

Promote and Vote for Esperanto on Change.org. Stop on by and wield your vote.

Some Website Updates

Neutral Language

Esperanto is a neutral language in that it does not have any specific ties to a religion, physician culture, here or nation. All other languages such as Japanese, English, Swahili, French, Russian, Hebrew, etc all have national, religious, cultural, political, and/or historical connotations, and baggage associated with them.

Americans want English to remain the lingua franca, the Japanese want Japanese, the Russians, want Russian, and many will oppose a language other than their native language simply because it is not their language or because there is national (French), historical (German), or political (English) problem from some countries which would keep it from being accepted.

French was the international language prior to World War II for a long time and then English took over after showing its economic and political dominance throughout that war. This change is imminent especailly as world’s political and economic landscape changes. What will be the next International Language? Whose will it be?

For native English speakers who do not speak Indian or any dialect of Chinese learning these languages can can be quite the daunting thought. The way to protect US interests and to level the playing field for all is to adopt Esperanto which has no cultural or national ties. It is orders-of-magnitudes easier to learn and gain a conversational understanding – somewhere in the realm of a little over 1 year of active study.

Constructed Language

Some would say that the fact that Esperanto is a constructed language is a disadvantage, but I will agrue that this is a distinct advantage when applied to an international audience. The native languages that most people speak have naturally and organically evolved much to the chagrin and frustration to a person who is trying to pick them up as second languages.

If you try to pick up a second language you have to deal with many gramattical inconsistencies and exceptions inherent in most organically grown “natural” languages, slang, as well as colloquial usage and pronuncuation. Esperanto spares you pretty much all of this, because it is a non-organic constructed language built with the intent to be easy to learn and consistent.

In English we have a few ways that have oprganically grown for us to make the ‘o’ sound as in the following situations: to, too, beautiful, few, and sue. How does anyone learn English? Esperanto is phonetic. The letters make one sound and one sound only each and every time. There are no tricky letter combinations that make differing sounds such as th, ch, qu and so on.

Esperanto has been constructed to be consistent, phonetic, and easy to learn avoiding the pitfalls and difficulties of other native languages.

Gateway Language

Esperanto will serve as a gateway language which will make it easier for people to more quickly learn other languages. Learning Esperanto prior to learning another can help reduce the amount of time to achieve converstional fluency by one or two years. It has also been proven to increase understanding and proficiency of your native tongue.

Preface – Esperanto Primer

First thing I want you to do is to overload yourself on  the Esperanto primer to get an overdose intro into Esperanto. I do not expect you to remember most of this. I just want you to get exposure to the overarching concepts found in Esperanto so you will have some perspective in how things fit together in the big picture of the language. If you really, online
really need to concentrate on something while taking a look at this then concentrate on the alphabet, since that will be the first lesson. 

You may want to print out the Primer so you have it as a reference document as you go through these exercises. It may come in handy to refresh your memory to give you an idea where the lesson is going or how it fits into the rest of the language. 

Chapter 1 – Esperanto Basics 

In Chapter 1 we will cover the Alphabet, as well as basic Noun, Verb, Article and Conjunction formation, as well as basic sentence structure and formation.

Chapter 2 – Expand Your Basics

In Chapter 2 we will cover Pronouns, Adjectives, more word modifiers, as well as expand your vocabulary a bit.

Basic Updates

I have the Links section copied over from my Blogger account. I also have the Archive basically functioning.

I may have a contact form up and running over this holiday weekend. We will see. Now that I am looking at it I will have to add a new comment and spam module too.

I am also considering moving this site from the WordPress CMS over to Drupal now that Dreamhost has an auto-install for Drupal… Yea!

Esperanto Pages

I have added a link in the header for Esperanto. I am in the process of trying to learn the language. This is more for my benefit while I muddle my way through it. If anyone has any questions, generic
comments, generic suggestion, improvements, corrections, or links for source validation, please feel free to comment. I will be expanding this as I go.

Promote Esperanto as the International Language

Go to White House 2 to show your support for Esperanto as the international language. Email all of your Esperanto peeps and have them take a whack at it too.

Esperanto Primer (v1.0)

The most useful site I have found to learn Esperanto is Lernu.net. This is what I have been able to glean so far:

There are not exceptions to any grammar rules at all. Each letter is pronounced the same each time with no exceptions – very phonetic pronunciation.

Alphabet

The alphabet is sounded out just like English with a few new letters that, steroids for me seem very Czech in nature (pronunciation is guidance is listed in brackets [ ]) :

a b c [ts] ĉ (ch) d e f g ĝ [j] h ĥ [ch] i j [y] ĵ [zh] k l m n o p r [rr] s ŝ [sh] t u ŭ [w] v z

Nouns

Base Nouns end in ‘o’: libro – book

Sentence Objects end in n: libron – book

Make a noun plural by adding ‘j’ to the end: libroj – books

Adding ‘et’ at the end of a noun creates something smaller: libreto – booklet

Possession: ‘de’

Pronouns

Pronouns end in ‘i’:

Mi – I

Vi – You

Li – He

xSi – She

xGi – It

Ni – We

Ili – They

oni – indefinite pronoun

Verbs

Base verbs end in ‘i’: doni – ‘to give’

Present tense verbs end in: ‘as’: donas – give

Past tense verbs end in: ‘is’: donis – gave

Future tense verbs end in: ‘os’: donos – will give

Conditional tense verbs end in: ‘us’: donus – would give

Command tense verbs end in: ‘u’: donu – Give! (implied subject you)

Estas – Am/is/are (present)

Estis – Was/Were (past)

Estos – ‘will be’ (future)

Adverbs

Adverbs are verbs that end in ‘e’: done – ?generously?

Adjectives

Base Adjectives end with ‘a’: bela – beautiful

Adding ‘mal’ to the beginning creates the negative: malbela – ugly

When describing the sentence object add an ‘n’ to the end: malbelan

Add ‘pli’ to magnify description one level: pli very beautiful

Add ‘plej’ to magnify description more : plej most beautiful

Comparison:‘ol’: this is bigger ‘than’ that

Articles and Other

La – the (no associated gender)

Accent – on second to last vowel