Esperanto Primer (v1.0)

The most useful site I have found to learn Esperanto is Lernu.net. This is what I have been able to glean so far:

There are not exceptions to any grammar rules at all. Each letter is pronounced the same each time with no exceptions – very phonetic pronunciation.

Alphabet

The alphabet is sounded out just like English with a few new letters that, steroids for me seem very Czech in nature (pronunciation is guidance is listed in brackets [ ]) :

a b c [ts] ĉ (ch) d e f g ĝ [j] h ĥ [ch] i j [y] ĵ [zh] k l m n o p r [rr] s ŝ [sh] t u ŭ [w] v z

Nouns

Base Nouns end in ‘o’: libro – book

Sentence Objects end in n: libron – book

Make a noun plural by adding ‘j’ to the end: libroj – books

Adding ‘et’ at the end of a noun creates something smaller: libreto – booklet

Possession: ‘de’

Pronouns

Pronouns end in ‘i’:

Mi – I

Vi – You

Li – He

xSi – She

xGi – It

Ni – We

Ili – They

oni – indefinite pronoun

Verbs

Base verbs end in ‘i’: doni – ‘to give’

Present tense verbs end in: ‘as’: donas – give

Past tense verbs end in: ‘is’: donis – gave

Future tense verbs end in: ‘os’: donos – will give

Conditional tense verbs end in: ‘us’: donus – would give

Command tense verbs end in: ‘u’: donu – Give! (implied subject you)

Estas – Am/is/are (present)

Estis – Was/Were (past)

Estos – ‘will be’ (future)

Adverbs

Adverbs are verbs that end in ‘e’: done – ?generously?

Adjectives

Base Adjectives end with ‘a’: bela – beautiful

Adding ‘mal’ to the beginning creates the negative: malbela – ugly

When describing the sentence object add an ‘n’ to the end: malbelan

Add ‘pli’ to magnify description one level: pli very beautiful

Add ‘plej’ to magnify description more : plej most beautiful

Comparison:‘ol’: this is bigger ‘than’ that

Articles and Other

La – the (no associated gender)

Accent – on second to last vowel

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6 Responses
  1. Bill Chapman says:

    This is a good introduction to a language which has changed my life. I’ve used it in speech and writing in a dozen countries over recent years.

    Indeed, the language has some remarkable practical benefits. Personally, I’ve made friends around the world through Esperanto that I would never have been able to communicate with otherwise. And then there’s the Pasporta Servo , which provides free lodging and local information to Esperanto-speaking travellers in over 90 countries. In the past year I have had guided tours of Berlin and Milan in the planned language. I have discussed philosophy with a Slovene poet, humour on television with a Bulgarian TV producer. I’ve discussed what life was like in East Berlin before the wall came down, how to cook perfect spaghetti, the advantages and disadvantages of monarchy, and so on. I recommend it, not just as an ideal but as a very practical way to overcome language barriers

    Take a look at http://www.esperanto.net too.

  2. FreeXenon says:

    Thanks for stopping by again! =) Yea!

    Wow! You have had such very diverse experiences with Esperanto. I have had a lot of luck with English. I have quite a few friends in different countries and fortunately they all speak English, but I think this could open me up to even more wonderful experiences.

    Learning Esperanto can open the doors even more with Esperanto and the Pasporta Servo that you have mentioned. I am looking forward to delving into this.

    This would also be great for my children (when we do have them) when they get of-traveling age, and allow them to see the world better.

  3. Anonymous says:

    Sorry but I spotted a typo.
    It should be http://www.lernu.net

    I totally agree, and Esperanto has a superb future.

    Sincerajn bondezirojn

    Brian Barker – London

  4. FreeXenon says:

    Thanks! That is corrected.

    I had the actual link correct, but not the link’s text. =(

    Good catch. =)

  5. mankso says:

    You wrote:
    >Adverbs are verbs that end in ‘e’:

    They’re not! – adverbs are derived mainly from adjectives, by replacing the -a ending with -e. There are also primary adverbs (e.g. nur, ankaŭ, ankoraŭ, jam, nun) without endings. Derived adverbs modify verbs, and occasionally adjectives:
    Ŝi bele kantas
    La pomo estas nun jam bele ruĝa

    Esperanto is an excellent introductory tool to foreign languages and basic English grammar.
    Rapidan kaj sukcesan progreson al via lingvolernado mi deziras.

  6. FreeXenon says:

    Thanks for the correction. There is still so much to learn.

    I have just finished reading “Esperanto: The Language for the Global Village” (or whatever it was called). A very good and long read. =)

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